Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Artaxerxes (Pers. Artakhshatra, Great Warrior), the name of several Persian monarchs.

I. Longimanus, so called because his right hand was longer than his left, was the son of Xerxes I. He killed his elder brother, and when Artabanus, after assassinating Xerxes, seized the throne, he defeated and slew him and began to reign in 465 B.C. He distinguished himself by moderation and greatness of mind; and on the whole enjoyed tranquillity. He permitted the Jews to resume worship in the Temple, and gave an asylum to the banished Themistocles. He died in 425 B.C.

II. Mnemon, son of Darius II., by the daughter of Artaxerxes I. His brother Cyrus revolted, and was defeated and slain at Cunaxa 401 B.C. The retreat of the Ten Thousand, made memorable by Xenophon, followed upon this campaign. Then followed the efforts of the Greeks, and especially of the Lacedaemonians under Agesilaus, to free the Greek cities of Asia. In 394 the Athenians under Conon, aided by Pharnabazus, a Persian satrap, defeated the Spartans at Cnidus, and in 388 the shameful peace of Antalcidas put an end to hostilities. Artaxerxes died in 359 B.C. at the age of ninety-four, leaving a reputation for leniency and wisdom.

III. Ochus, son of the preceding monarch, came to the throne after killing off some thirty brothers. He crushed the revolt of Artabazus, and with the help of Greek mercenaries subdued the Egyptians, killing and eating the sacred bull Apis. Detested for his cruelty, he was poisoned by Bagoas, his trusted eunuch.