Arctic Expeditions, voyages of discovery which have been made towards the North Pole and in the Arctic regions. Voyages similarly made to the South Pole are termed Antarctic expeditions, while both these kinds come under the head of Polar Expeditions. As there is a much greater surface of land in the Arctic regions than in the Antarctic, the temperature is consequently higher in the regions of the North Pole, and has therefore proved a greater attraction to explorers. The first genuine voyage of discovery made to the Arctic regions was made in 1603 by one Stephen Bennett, who was followed very shortly (1607) by the famous Hudson (q.v.), who reached the latitude of 81° 30' before he was compelled to retire. Various minor expeditions followed this, but it was not until 1773 that Captain Phipps, commanding an important expedition, fitted out for scientific purposes alone, succeeded in reaching lat. 80° 48'. Captain Cook, Scoresby (who penetrated to 81° 30'), Buchan, Franklin, Clavering, and others, all made unsuccessful attempts, but in 1827 Captain Parry passed beyond the latitude reached by Hudson, and succeeded in getting as far as 82° 40'. In 1845 Sir John Franklin (q.v.) started on an expedition to discover a north-west passage and never returned, for an account of his death in 1847 was found and brought home by M'Clintock in 1859. Nansen succeeded in attaining the highest latitude yet reached, viz. 85° 57', in 1896.