Archbishop, a chief bishop. The office is of considerable antiquity in the annals of Christianity, and in England dates back to 597 A.D. In the English Church there are two Archbishops, the one of Canterbury, styled the Primate of all England, the other of York, called Primate of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury, whose office is the more important of the two, ranks immediately after princes of the royal blood, and before all other subjects; he has the privilege of crowning the Sovereign, is ex officio a member of the Privy Council, and besides his episcopal duties is practically the medium of communication between the Church and the Ministers. The Archbishop of York ranks after the Lord Chancellor as a prince, and has the privilege of crowning the Queen Consort. He is also a member of the Privy Council, and has jurisdiction over the Archbishopric of York. An archbishop may be appealed to from any decisions of the bishops within his diocese, over whom it is his function to exercise supervision. The Archbishop of Canterbury is moreover empowered to grant degrees. There are two Archbishops of the Church of England in Ireland, of Armagh (Primate of All Ireland), and of Dublin (Primate of Ireland); there are none in Scotland. In the Roman Catholic Church there is only one Archbishop for England, viz. the Archbishop of Westminster; while there are two for Scotland of the sees of St. Andrew's with Edinburgh, and Glasgow, and no less than four for Ireland, viz. of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam.