Apollonius, (1) of Rhodes, a Greek poet, who was born at Alexandria or Naucratis, about 276 B.C. He is reputed to have been first the pupil and afterwards the rival of Callimachus, who caused his exile to Rhodes. After the death of his enemy he returned to Egypt, and was made guardian of the great library of Alexandria. Only one of his works has come down to us, viz. the Argonautica, an epic in four books, from which Virgil borrowed. He died about 186. (2) Of Tyana, in Cappadocia, a philosopher of the first Christian century, who seems to have combined mysticism and magic with the cult of virtue. His birth in 4 B.C. was alleged to have been attended by miraculous signs. He studied at Tarsus and AEge, adopting the moral and religious principles of Pythagoras for his guidance. He then seems to have travelled as a teacher over the greater part of the known world, visiting India and AEthiopia, and going to Rome in Nero's time to see "what sort of a beast a tyrant was." He enjoyed the esteem of Vespasian and Titus, but was charged with conspiracy against Domitian. He was taken to Rome, refuted his accusers, and returned by magical means. Afterwards he prophesied the emperor's assassination. He died about 96 A.D.