Antonelli, Giacomo, Cardinal, born at the village of Sonnino on the Pontine Marshes in 1806. His father was apparently a timber merchant, but the name and family are ancient. Having received his education at the Grand Seminary at Rome and entered the priesthood, he was taken up by Pope Gregory XVI., and held several state offices. In 1847 he was created Cardinal by Pius IX. At first he seemed disposed to join the Liberal party, but soon changing his views he resigned office and retired with the Pope to Gaeta, where he took part in the negotiations that resulted in the re-occupation of the Vatican (1850). Thenceforward he acted as Foreign Minister to the Holy See until his death, opposing to the best of his power the unification of Italy and all other progressive measures. He raised a force to resist Garibaldi's attempt on Rome in 1867. The expulsion of the Austrians destroyed his chief hopes; the withdrawal of the French in 1870 shattered them still further, and the abortive result of Arnim's mission left nothing for him but a policy of sullen protest. He died in 1876, leaving his vast fortune to be the subject of a cause celebre between his acknowledged heirs and his reputed daughter, Countess Lambertini.