Aleppo or Haleb, the capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name in Northern Syria, is situated on the river Koeik about seventy miles from the Port of Scanderoon on the Mediterranean. Known to the ancients as Beraea, Aleppo from very early times has been the chief emporium of the caravan trade with India, Persia, and Armenia. It is now a station on the Indo-European telegraph line and consuls of most of the Powers reside there. It may possibly become in the future the starting point of a railway to India. The city is well built of white stone, and is surrounded by a strong wall. A newly-erected citadel also protects it. The chief manufacture is cloth, but silk, cotton, shawls, and gold and silver thread are amongst its industries.