Albertus Magnus, born of noble parents at Lauingen, in Suabia, about 1193. After studying Aristotle at Padua he became a Dominican, and was sent by that Order to Cologne and other cities in Germany as theological lecturer. In 1245 he took his doctor's degree in Paris and taught there for some time. He was made provincial of his Order in 1254, and defended it against the attacks of the University of Paris, controverting also the errors of Averroes. For three years (1260-63) he held the bishopric of Ratisbon. His later years were spent in preaching throughout Bavaria or in retirement, almost his last task being the defence of the orthodoxy of Thomas Aquinas. In his private character he was modest, pious, and upright, though his devotion to astronomy, astrology, and chemistry caused him to be regarded as a magician. His voluminous works show a profound knowledge of Aristotle, whose system he endeavoured to reconcile with the doctrines of the Church. He died in 1280.