Abdul Hamid II
Abdul-Hamid II. succeeded Abdul-Aziz-Khan as Sultan, 1876 (see above), in troublous times. Bulgaria, Servia, and Montenegro were up in arms, and in 1877 Russia, having a secret understanding with Austria, declared war. Osman Pasha's heroic defence of Plevna checked for a few weeks the march of the invaders over the Balkans, but ultimately Constantinople was surrounded and the treaty of San Stefano signed. This was followed by the Berlin Convention. In 1895 there occurred a number of outrages in Armenia.