Abder Rahman Khan
Abd-er-Rahman Khan, the Ameer of Afghanistan, was born about 1830, and was recognised by the English Government as the ruler in 1880. He is the grandson of Dost Muhammad, a former Ameer, but the earlier part of his life was spent in much trouble, as civil war was constantly raging, and Abd-er-Kahman was continually taking up arms on behalf of one relative or another. In 1868, however, he retired into Russia, and it was not until 1880, the year of his assumption of the sovereign power, that he displayed marked activity. His position, at first, was the reverse of secure, but was much strengthened in 1885, when the English Government agreed to pay him a yearly subsidy of £120,000. Since that date his reign has been comparatively peaceful, although in 1887 it was with difficulty that he quelled some rebellious outbreaks of the Ghilzais.