Abbas X., Shah of Persia, seventh of the Sophi dynasty, was born in 1537, and succeeded in 1575. He displayed vigour and ability, though not without an admixture of cruelty and treachery. He put his own son to death. He extended the kingdom in all directions by conquest, wresting from the Turks the territory annexed by them, and, with the aid of an English fleet, taking the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese (1622). By his poorer subjects he was beloved, for he protected them from the extortions of officials. He died in 1628. Abbas II., great-grandson of the above, succeeded in 1629, at the age of 13. He was a patron of the fine arts, but addicted to intemperance and violence. Died 1666. Abbas III., the last of the Sophis. He was set on the throne (1732) by Nadir Shah at the age of 8 months. He died four years later.