Note: Information is dated. Do not rely on it.Apple. The name applied to a tree belonging to the rose family of plants, as well as to its fruit. There are two real types, the common apple, Pyrus malus, and the crab apple, Pyrus baccata, from which all the cultivated apples of the world have developed. The fruit of the apple is a pome, consisting of a thickened fleshy calyx, inclosing the horny cells forming the core, and covering the true seeds. The apple has been known since prehistoric times. The genus extends around the world in the north temperate zone. The crab apple is of value for making jelly, but chiefly because it transmits its hardiness to its crosses with the common apple, producing a fruit of good quality that can endure northern climates. America is the chief apple growing country, producing, in 1899, 175,397,626 bushels, worth over $83,000,000. The export trade to Europe is constantly increasing. The apple is used principally for eating out of hand, for cooking, and for making cider, vinegar, and brandy.