Sixtus V. Born in 1521. Originally a shepherd boy near Ancona, by name Felice Peretti, but became successively general of the Cordeliers at Bologna, confessor to Pius V, and cardinal, being elected successor to Gregory XIII in 1585. He excommunicated Henry of Navarre, Conde, and Henri III of France, and approved the expedition of Philip II against England. At Rome, he rebuilt the Vatican library, established the press, spent large sums in improving the city, and put down brigandage in his dominions. He also fixed the number of cardinals at 70. Died 1590.