Pius IX (Giovanni Mastal-Ferretti. Born in 1792. Elected pope in 1846, and immediately granted a constitution, but refused to declare war against Austria. After the insurrection at Rome (1848), he fled to Gaeta, but was restored by French aid two years later. The same year he established a Catholic hierarchy in England and, in 1854, defined the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 1859-60 he lost the greater part of his dominions, but was maintained in Rome by a French garrison. In 1870, the infallibility dogma was promulgated by the ecumenical council held at Rome. In that year, when the French left the city, it was declared the capital of Italy, and occupied by the troops of Victor Emmanuel. Died 1878.