Philip II of Spain. Born in 1527. Succeeded upon the abdication of Charles V in 1556. He married (1) Maria of Portugal, (2) Mary of England, (3) Elizabeth of France, (4) Anne of Austria. His reign was marked by the revolt of the Netherlands, the annexation of Portugal (1580), the defeat of the Turks at Lepanto (1571), and the loss of the Armada (1588). Died 1598.