Pickering, Edward Charles. Professor of astronomy and director Harvard College Observatory, 1876-1919. Born in Boston, 1846. He graduated from Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard, 1865 (A.M. 1800); Heidelberg, (Ph.D. 1903). LL.D. University of California, 1886; Michigan, 1887; Chicago, 1901; Harvard, 1903. From 1865-1867 he was instructor of mathematics, Lawrence Scientific School. While professor of physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1867-76, he established the first physical laboratory for public instruction in the United States in 1869. During his directorship, the Harvard College Observatory greatly increased its activities and equipment, establishing at Arequipa, Peru, a branch observatory for the study of southern stars. For distinguished work in astronomical physics, notably in light and the spectra of stars, he was awarded the Draper, the Rumford, the Bruce, and other medals. Author: "The Elements of Physical Manipulation." Pickering died in 1919.