Mary I. Queen of England. Born in 1516, daughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon. Came to the throne in 1553, after a short struggle with Northumberland. Restored the abbey lands taken by Henry VIII. Deprived and imprisoned the Protestant bishops and, having married Philip II of Spain, persecuted the Protestants, contrary to the promises made before her accession. The end of her reign was marked by a war in conjunction with Spain, against France, when Calais was lost to England. Died 1558.