MacMahon, Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de. French soldier and statesman of Irish descent. Born in 1808. Served in the Algerian war of 1830, took part in the expedition to Antwerp in 1832, and in 1855, succeeded to Canrobert's command in the Crimea. For his services in Italy in 1859, he was made Duc de Magenta and marshal of France, and became governor-general of Algeria in 1864. On the outbreak of war with Prussia, he was given the command of the first army corps. He shared in the disaster at Woerth, and was in chief command at Sedan, where he was severely wounded and made prisoner. On his return to France in March, 1871, he conducted the siege of Paris against the Communists, and reorganized the army. In 1873, he was named president of the Republic for seven years. In 1877, he began to entertain monarchical designs, but was defeated in the elections, and two years later retired rather than submit to the law against monarchical officers. He continued to live in retirement in Paris until his death in 1893.