Mazarin, Giulio, Cardinal. French statesman. Of Italian parentage, born in 1602. After being in the diplomatic service of Spain, he went to France in 1634, as nuncio-extraordinary of the pope and, having been favored by Richelieu, joined him five years later in opposition to the papacy, and became naturalized in France. In 1641, he was created cardinal and, having succeeded to the place of Richelieu soon after, supported Anne of Austria. After having twice been exiled by his enemies' influence, was recalled by Louis XIV in 1653, and remained supreme until his death in 1661. He had a share in the Treaty of Westphalia, and negotiated the Treaty of the Pyre.