Biography of Thomas Jonathan Jackson


Jackson, Thomas Jonathan. Better known the world over as "Stonewall Jackson," an American general. Born at Clarksburg, West Virginia, in 1824, and graduated at West Point Academy in 1846. After serving with distinction in the Mexican War, Jackson became a professor in the Military Institute at Lexington, VA, until the outbreak of the Civil War. Appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate service at the Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, his command on that occasion "stood like a stone wall," to use the words often attributed to another general present. In September, he received the rank of major-general; defeated General Banks at Front Royal, May 23, 1862; fought an indecisive battle with Fremont at Cross Keys, June 8th; commanded a corps in the battles of Gaines' Mill, June 27th, and Malvern Hill, July 1st. Again defeated General Banks at Cedar Mountain, August 9th; captured Harper's Ferry with 11,000 Federal prisoners, September 15th; commanded a corps at Antietam, September 17th. Was made lieutenant-general for his services in largely contributing to the Federal defeat at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. On May 2, 1863, by a clever flank movement, he defeated the 11th corps of General Hooker's army at Chancellorsville; and on the evening of the same day was fired at by a patrol party of his own men, who mistook him and his staff, in the darkness, for a detachment of Union cavalry, and died of his wounds on the 10th.