Joffre (zho'-fr'), Joseph Jacques Cesaire. Distinguished French general, the hero of the Battle of the Marne in World War I. Was born at Rivesaltes, Pyrenees, 1852. Joffre studied military engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique, and served in the artillery during the Franco-Prussian War. He was made captain in 1874 and, after winning repeated promotion in various fields of service, became professor in the French war school. In 1911 he was appointed chief of staff and, following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, was made commander-in-chief of the allied forces in France. By his notable victory of the Marne in September, 1914, the German advance was stopped, and Paris was saved. His defense of Verdun in 1916 ranks high among great military achievements. In appreciation of his services to the nation, Joffre was created marshal of France. When America joined the Allies in 1917, Joffre was made a member of the Anglo-French mission to the United States. He was everywhere welcomed amid scenes of unparalleled enthusiasm, and was honored with many notable gifts and tokens of esteem. In 1918, he was elected to a seat among the "immortals" of the French academy.