Holland, John Philip (1842-1914),an Irish-American inventor who did more than any other man to prove the practicability of submarine navigation. He was born in County Clare, Ireland, and educated in Limerick. For fifteen years Holland taught school in Ireland and in America. It is said that he bore an intense hatred toward England, and that he conceived of the submarine boat as a means of destroying her sea power. However this may be, he built and launched a small boat in 1875, and a second in 1877. In 1881 the third appeared: The last Holland boat was put to a severe test, and in 1900 was ordered by the United States government. In 1903 eight of the submarines were launched, and for some time submarine boats of almost all nations were built upon Holland's plan. Holland experimented in aeronautics, but with no success, and died in poverty.