Henry IV (of Germany). Born in 1050. Son of Henry III. Began the Investiture disputes with the papacy, in the course of which he deposed Gregory VII, but was himself excommunicated and deposed; was obliged to submit at Canossa in 1077 but, in 1084, again invaded Italy, and captured Rome. In Germany he had enemies in Rudolf of Swabia (whom he defeated finally at Wolksheim in 1080), in the Saxons, and in his sons, Conrad and Henry, by the latter of whom he was dethroned. Died 1106.