Carrel, Alexis. Distinguished American biologist and surgeon. Carrel was born in France, 1873. Educated at the University of Lyons, where he graduated in medicine in 1900. Carrel came to America in 1905. Took charge of research laboratory at McGill University, and later at the University of Chicago. In 1909 he was made fellow of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York, where his brilliant investigations and discoveries in experimental surgery won world-wide recognition. Carrel's researches in medicine demonstrated that life in tissues may be prolonged after removal from the body; also that arteries, organs, and limbs may be successfully transplanted. In 1912 he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for medicine bestowed upon an American. He published a great number of scientific papers, chiefly in regard to his remarkable discoveries in the transplantation of organs by advanced surgical methods. Among his most important papers are: "Anastomosis and Transplantation of Blood Vessels," "The Preservation of Tissues," "The Surgery of Blood Vessels," "The Transplantation of Limbs," "Visceral Organisms," "Complete Amputation of the Thigh with Replantation," and "The Transplantation of Veins and Organs."