Borgia, Cesare. Born in 1476. Italian master of statecraft of great but evil fame. The fourth son of Pope Alexander VI by Rosa Vanozza; was created a cardinal, though he divested himself of the office in later years to suit his purposes. He compassed the death of his brother Giovanni, who was Duke of Gandia, in order to gain complete ascendancy in the papal government. In 1498, having been sent as nuncio to Louis XII of France, he was created Duke of Valentinois, and married the daughter of Jean d'Albret, King of Navarre. After accompanying Louis XII's Italian campaign, he conceived the idea of a kingdom in Central Italy, and by force, treachery, and murder, he had nearly succeeded in obtaining ascendancy throughout the Roman states, when the death of his father deprived him of his great source of power. He was sent in 1504 a prisoner to Spain by Pope Julius II, but escaped and joined the King of Navarre's army against Castile. In this campaign he was killed in 1507.