Botta, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo. Born in 1766. Italian historian, studied medicine, and was imprisoned in 1792 as a revolutionary. He took an active part in the government of Piedmont set up by Napoleon, but after the emperor's overthrow he devoted himself entirely to literature. He wrote "The History of Italy Between 1789 and 1814," and a "History of the American War of Independence." Died 1837.