Abd-ul-Hamic II, formerly sultan of Turkey, was born in 1842, the second son of Sultan Abd-ul-Medjid. He was proclaimed sultan in succession to his brother Murad V, who was deposed in consequence of mental incapacity (August 31, 1876), and died on August 29, 1904. The succession to the throne, according to Turkish custom, vest in the senior male descendant of the house of Othman, sprung from the Imperial Harem. The sultan does not marry, but from the inmates of the harem selects a certain number who are known as ladies of the palace, the others occupying positions subordinate to them. All children born in the harem are held to be of legitimate and equal birth. The eldest son of the sultan succeeds only when there are not uncles or cousins of greater age than himself. Abd-ul-Hamid had several children. He was forced to abdicate the throne in May, 1909. Died, 1918.